The rose flower is nearly 35 million years old. It certainly has a fascinating history.
The earliest known cultivation of rose flowers date from at least 500 BC in Mediterranean countries, Persia and China. Northern Persia and China are probably the birthplaces of the cultivated rose flower. The history of rose hybridization began in England in the 15th century.
The rose flower had a special place in the ancient civilizations such as the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Chinese, the Phoenicians, and the Romans.
The Egyptians decorated with cut rose flowers placed in vases. They liked to wear wreaths of rose flowers as well as flower collars and made chaplets for their hair. They also tossed Rose petals onto floors and beds. Rose flowers have been found in the tombs of ancient Egyptians. It has been said that Cleopatra wore rose oil when she first met Mark Anthony to capture his love.
The Romans adored rose flowers and used them as a source of perfume and for medicinal purposes. They used rose flowers at weddings and funerals. The Romans used rose essence to flavor wine. The petals of the rose flower were used as confetti during festivals. The Romans also experimented with the cultivation of rose flowers.
The Greeks also used rose flowers. Greek mythology is replete with referenced to the rose flower. In a Greek myth, the rose flower was created by the goddess of flowers, Chloris. One day, she found the lifeless body of a nymph in the forest and she transformed her into a flower. Aphrodite gave the nymph the gift of beauty, Dionysus gave her nectar for fragrance. The three Graces gave the rose charm, brightness, and joy. That is how the Rose flower was created and crowned “Queen of Flowers”.
The Chinese were making rose flower arrangements. They used rose flowers for religious teaching and medicine. About 500 B.C. Confucius wrote that Rose flowers were growing in the Imperial Gardens and noted that the library of the Chinese emperor contained hundreds of books on rose flowers.
Europeans valued the rose flower for its beauty and unique scent. They believed that rose flowers have medicinal and spiritual qualities.
In the 15th century, In Europe people were already cultivating and making hybrids of rose flowers. Two hundred new strains of rose were developed between 1580 and 1710.
Rose flowers increased in demand during the 17th century. They became a form of barter and payment. In the 19th century, the essential oil of rose flowers was discovered and the rose flower became the main source of perfume.
Today they are over 150 species of rose flowers. They play a significant role in many culture and religions. To the Arabs, Rose flowers signify masculine beauty. The Muslims belive that the rose flower was created from the sweat of Mohammed. The hindus oil themselves with rose oil in preparation for prayer and worship.
Rose flowers have been a source of inspiration for artists everywhere in the world. Thousands of paintings and poems have been written inspired by rose flowers.
Types of Roses
There are many different types of Roses flowers. They are one of the most diverse plant species. There are much more rose flowers than people can imagine. It is believed that the rose family contains more than 2500 species. It is hard to list all the names of the rose flowers, that is why they are divided into groups based on their growth pattern and cultivation history. Here is the list of some of the most popular types of roses.
This type of roses is a result of crossbreeding the hybrid tea with polyanthus. This modern type of rose includes all rose flowers which were developed after 1867. These rose flowers are the most popular among florists and gardens because of their varied, rich, and vibrant colors. The list of the most popular modern roses include: Hybrid tea roses, Floribunda Roses and Grandiflora Roses. Modern roses do not adapt well to colder environments and do require proper care.
Old Garden Roses
Old roses or antique roses are the predecessors of modern roses. Old roses are those existing before 1867. They date back to the time of the Roman Empire when they were revered for their beauty and strong, sweet fragrance. Old roses are generally wintered hardy, disease-resistant, easy to grow, and long-lived. The list of popular Old roses includes: Albas roses, Bourbon roses, Centifolia roses, China roses, Damask roses, Gallica roses, Hybrid Perpetuals, Moss roses, and Tea roses.
Wild roses occur naturally on our planet, with no help from man. Wild roses are the ancestors of all cultivated roses found throughout the world. These types of roses are often thorny shrubs or climbers. These rose flowers have 5 petals and can be found in temperate climates in North America and Europe. In the wild, they occur in valleys, jungles, woods, mountains, and thickets.
They grow in different places at all attitudes. Wild roses bloom once in the summer. Wild roses include many different varieties. They range in color from white through all shades of pink to crimson. Sometimes they can be found in yellow. The most famous wild rose is the Rosa rugosa.
Climbing roses have a strong vertical growth habit and grow up like vines. They may bloom once a season or continually, depending on the variety. Climbing roses are great for vertical gardening. They add grace to any garden or building. Climbing roses can be trained to grow against supports. They are used on walls, fences, pillars, entrance ways, and other structures in your garden.
Miniature roses are smaller than the full-sized varieties. They come in different sizes and colors. They are fragrant and beautiful as well. Despite their small size, they are extremely hardy. Miniature roses are great for indoor planting.
Shrub roses are hard to define a group of flowering plants. They do not fit into other categories. They have good hardiness and nice ornamental characteristics. They are easy to grow and require little care. Sizes of shrub roses range from low growing ground covers to large shrubs reaching 12-15 feet. Shrub roses are used for privacy hedges and shrub borders.
Red Rose Flowers
Red rose flowers have been the most common gift flower given in recent years. The red rose flower is the most popular flower for birthdays, anniversaries, and Valentine’s day. The single red rose is a universal symbol of commitment and passion. The thorns are left on the rose flowers represent that the love of two people is stronger than any thorns that may cause pain in their relationship and it will grow strong with each day. Red rose flowers with long, thorny stems should inspire love.
Red rose flowers may have different meanings depending on their shade. Red rose flowers also symbolize courage, power, strength, appreciation, and respect. In many cultures people exchange red rose flowers just to say “Good luck”, “Congratulations”. Red rose flowers signify celebration after a happy event. Dark red roses and flowers symbolize unconscious beauty.
Early civilizations adored the red rose flower too. The Romans used red rose petals to produce perfume as a symbol of luxury. In Greek mythology, the single red rose was associated with the Goddess of Love, Aphrodite. In Christianity, the red rose flower is a symbol of Jesus Christ blood and the suffering that he went through during his crucifixion. The five red rose petals are identified with the five wounds of Jesus Christ.
Miniature roses first came into being in the early 1930s as an accidental result of rose hybridizing. In the United States, the boom began in the 1970s.
Miniature rose plants bear beautiful 1/2 to 2 inch rose flowers in small to medium-sized clusters. They can have single flowers, double flowers, and clusters. Usually, they bloom from spring until frost. Miniature roses are available in a wide selection of colors and types. There are more than 400 varieties of miniature roses.
Miniature roses are very easy to grow. Despite their small size, they are generally extremely hardy. In USDA they can be grown in zone 6 to 10 without winter protection. Miniature roses need plenty of bright light. They need at least 6 hours of sunlight daily.
Another important aspect of caring for miniature roses is their need for water. Never allow the soil to get completely dry.
Miniature roses also require moderate temperatures for best growth. 60-70′s F is the ideal temperature for the miniature rose. If the temperature is colder, the miniature rose plant will go dormant, and if it is too warm it will dry out and wilt.
Read More: Popular Tropical Flowers
Rose Flowers Uses
Rose flowers have been cultivated for thousands of years by many civilizations. They have been cultivated for their beauty, fragrance, healing properties, and edible fruits. Rose flowers have been used for gifts, decorations, medication, essential oils, making perfumes, and cosmetics.
- Roses are great cut flowers. Probably it is a major reason why they are grown everywhere. They make us feel good and help us to celebrate special events.
- Rose flowers can be used for any occasion. Officially, the rose flower is a preferred special occasion flower. It is the most sold-out flower on Valentine’s day. The rose flower is a symbol of love, and nothing conveys the message of love and romance like a stunning bouquet of rose flowers. A single rose flower makes a perfect gift too.
- Traditionally, rose flowers are used for decorations at weddings. They create an atmosphere of romance, and a wedding ceremony without the rose flower seems to be incomplete. Rose flowers are used for decorating wedding places, wedding bouquets, bridal dresses, tables, floral centerpieces, and hair.
- Due to their beautiful appearance rose flowers are widely used for ornamental purposes. They are the perfect choice for indoor arrangements. They create a beautiful presentation, add a pleasant aroma and make your home look wonderful.
- Rose oil is one of the most popular essential oils. The aroma of this oil is full, rich, intoxicating, and aphrodisiac. It is very good for aromatherapy and anti-depression. Rose oil has many healing properties. The rose oil emanates the highest energy vibration of all known oils. The rose oil may elevate mind and spirit, and bring balance and harmony.
- Rose flowers are used in perfumery. The rose flower is known as the “queen of flowers”. The essential and fragrance oils which are found in rose flowers are the base for many perfumes. In fact, rose flowers are found in 75% of all perfumes. Rose flowers are gathered at night since they carry fragrances before sunrise.
- The rose hips are a source of vitamins A and C, and are used to make herbal tea. Occasionally they are made into jam, jelly, marmalade, and rosehip syrup. Rosehip powder was used as a flavoring in soups and for making syrup.
- Due to their cosmetic properties and fragrance, rose flowers are used in hair care products and cosmetics. They help to fight the aging process of the skin, stimulate regeneration and improve the quality of the skin by increasing its elasticity by building up collagen. The cosmetics made from rose flowers also repair damaged skin, burns, and sunburns.
- Because of the medicinal properties of the rose flower, it is widely used in medicine. Rose flowers can be used to treat stomach problems, bladder infections, and diarrhea. Rose flowers can also be used to control bleeding.
Rose oil has a deep, rosy, and fresh aroma. It usually has a pale yellow or dark olive-green color. The chemical composition of rose oil is one of the most complexes and contains more than 300 known compounds.
While rose oil is very beneficial, it is very expensive to produce. It takes approximately 60000 rose flowers to make a single ounce of rose oil. It is about 60 roses for a single drop of rose oil.
Rose oil can benefit health and wellness in many ways:
- It can improve mood and circulation.
- Rose oil can promote digestive and intestinal health.
- Rose oil is a natural anti-inflammatory, can be helpful in supporting the immune system and can speed would healing.
- Rose oils can provide relief for respiratory infections, asthma, cough, and nausea.
- Rose oil may be effective in decreasing the severity of menstrual cramps and headaches.
- Rose essential oil soothes and harmonizes the mind and helps with stress-related conditions such as depression, anger, grief, fear, irritability, and nervous tension.
- Rose oil boosts self-esteem, confidence, and mental strength. Rose oils can help to treat insomnia.
- Rose oil is great for skin. It has soothing properties for inflamed skin. It is suitable for all skin types, but it is especially valuable for aging, dry, or sensitive skin and is perfect for preventing wrinkles. Rose oil is an ideal oil for massage.
Rose oils are highly used in perfumery. Today much of modern perfumery is unthinkable without rose essential oil. Rose oil is perhaps the most important of all the essential oils used in perfumery. Approximately 75% of all perfumes contain rose oil.
Rosewater is useful to us in many different ways:
Rosewater has been used to flavor foods. It is used commonly in Iranian cooking, especially in sweets. In India, rose water is used in rice puddings and cakes. Arabs use rose water to flavor milk and dairy-based dishes. In France, the flavor macaroons, eclairs, and madeleines with rose water. Rosewater is the staple flavor of Turkish delight. Rosewater is also may be added to tea, ice cream, and other dessert products. In Malaysia and Singapore, rose water is mixed with milk and sugar to make a sweet drink called Bandung.
Rosewater has always been used in beauty treatments since ancient days. Rosewater is extremely beneficial for skin:
- It has natural healing, antiseptic and anti-bacterial properties that are ideal for skincare and its problems.
- Rosewater makes skin feel fresh, smooth, and radiant.
- It helps to firm and tone the skin as well as hydrate your skin and make it glow with health.
- Rosewater is very effective for sensitive skin.
- Rosewater is a natural skin toner and rejuvenates skin after a stressful day. It is believed that rose water helps to slow aging.
The sweet smell and lovely scent of rose water can lift anyone’s mood. Rose water can be used for bathing. Added to the bathwater, infusions can be soothing and relaxing. Even in the ancient days, Roman preferred to bathe in rose water.
Rose water can serve as a perfume. Simply spritz it on your neck slightly under each ear, then on the wrists and you will smell exotic and lovely. You can use rose water as often as you wish.